Studies on the dynamics of sperm transport have shown that there is a progressive decline in the number of sperm along the length of the female reproductive tract. In the ampulla of a patent tube, a maximum of only 200 sperm is present after intercourse. Ripps et al. (1994) showed that the number of sperm in the pouch of Douglas after IUI was very low. However, it has been shown that the number of motile sperm can be significantly increased with fallopian tube sperm flushes (Kahn et al., 1992). Taking these observations into consideration, another simple non-invasive method was introduced called Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). This technique was developed to ensure the presence of higher sperm densities in the Fallopian tubes at the time of ovulation compared with standard IUI. Fallopian tube sperm perfusion is based on pressure injection of 4 ml of sperm suspension with an attempt to seal the cervix to prevent semen reflux. This results in a sperm flushing of the Fallopian tubes and an overflowing of the inseminate into the pouch of Douglas (Kahn et al., 1992; Fanchin et al., 1995). With IUI, on the other hand, 0.3–0.5 ml of sperm suspension is inseminated.
Ripps BA, Minhas BS, Carson SA and Buster JE (1994) Intrauterine insemination in fertile women delivers larger number of sperm to the peritoneal fluid than intracervical insemination. Fertil Steril 61, 398–400. Kahn JA, Von During V, Sunde A and Molne K (1992a) Fallopian tube sperm perfusion used in a donor insemination programme. Hum Reprod 7, 806–812.
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